Future Technology Vehicle Vehicular Automation Autonomous Car





Autonomous Car

Autonomous Car , Future Technology for Vehicle. This is Vehicular Automation

Vehicular automation involves the use of Mechatronics, Artificial Intelligence, Multi-agent System

to assist a vehicle's operator.

These features and the vehicles employing them may be labeled as intelligent or smart.

A vehicle using automation for difficult tasks, especially navigation, may be referred to as semi-autonomous.



An autonomous car is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car.



As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.

History

1920s

Transmitting Antennae

1930s

Embedded circuits and radio controllers

1950s

Detector Circuits

Special Radio Receivers

Audible And Visual Warning Devices

1960s

Electronically Controlled Highways

Powered And Controlled By Buried Cables

Wayside Communicators Relaying Computer Messages





1980s

 laser radar, computer vision and autonomous robotic control

off-road map and sensor-based autonomous navigation

1990s

Extensive systems engineering work and research

 video cameras on board and use of stereoscopic vision algorithms

2000s

 Real-Time Control System

 RFID-tags

2010s

Artificial Intelligence

GPS, Lidar, 3D mapping, cameras, Sensors, etc.



Vehicle Hardware

RADAR

Optics

LIDAR

GPS

Processors

Wheel Speed Sensors



RADAR

Traditional RADAR sensors are used to detect dangerous objects in the vehicle’s path that are more than 100 meters away.



Accident-Prevention systems trigger alerts when they detect something in a blind car’s blind spot.



The radar chirps between 10 and 11 GHz over a    5 millisecond period, transmitting the radar signal from a centrally located antenna cone.



Two receive cones, separated by approximately 14 inches, receive the reflected radar energy.

Optics

A camera mounted near the rear-view mirror build a real-time 3D images of the road ahead, spotting hazards like pedestrians and animals.



It is also used to identify road markings and traffic signals.



LIDAR

The Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) which is mounted on the roof of the vehicle is the most important device in the Autonomous vehicles.



The LIDAR consists of an emitter, mirror and receiver.



The emitter sends out a LASER beam that bounces off a mirror that is rotating along with the cylindrical housing at 10 revolutions per minute.



After bouncing off objects, the LASER beam returns to the mirror and is bounced back towards the receiver, where it can be interpreted into data.



The vehicle can then generate a map of its surroundings and use the map to avoid objects.

LIDAR

GPS

A Global Positioning System keeps the car on its intended route with an accuracy of 30 centimeters.



With GPS covering the macro location of car, smaller on-deck cameras can recognize smaller details like red lights, stop signs and construction zones.

Processors

Some 7 dual-core 2.13 GHz processors and 2Gb of RAM are needed to make sense of the data collected by the car’s instruments.



Some car run as many as 17 processors to dispense the computing load.

Wheel Speed Sensors

Wheel Speed Sensors measure the road-wheel speed and direction of rotation.

These sensors provide input to a number of different automotive systems including the anti-lock brake system and electronic stability control.

Working

The signal from the sensors are used by the Electronic Control Unit for decision making using a software code.



Based on the information from the sensors, the Electronic Control Unit gives signal to the actuators, which in turn control the vehicle.



Also, real time information of the surroundings is output to the user interface located inside the vehicle.







Potential Advantages

Fewer traffic collisions

Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion

Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores.

Higher speed limit for autonomous cars.

Removal of constraints on occupants' state.

Alleviation of parking scarcity.

Elimination of redundant

Reduction of space required for vehicle parking.

Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance.

Reduction of physical road signage .

Smoother ride.

Potential Obstacles

Liability for damage.

Resistance for individuals to forfeit control of their cars.

Software reliability.

Cyber Security

Implementation of legal framework and establishment of government regulations for self-driving cars

Reliance on autonomous drive produces less experienced drivers for when manual drive is needed.

Loss of driver-related jobs

Loss of privacy.

Autonomous cars relying on lane markings cannot decipher faded, missing, or incorrect lane markings.

Temporary construction zones which are not posted to any maps or data bases.

Determination of the severity of traffic lane obstacles, as in the question of safely straddling a pothole or debris

Google Driverless Car

Toyota Prius modified to operate as a Google driverless car

Navia

World’s first commercially available driverless car by France-based robotics company Induct.

Official Predictions

By 2014, Israeli company Mobileye expects to release semi-autonomous car technology.



By 2015, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams.



By 2016, Mobileye expects to release fully autonomous car technology.



By 2018, Google expects to release their autonomous car technology.



By 2020, Volvo envisages having cars in which passengers would be immune from injuries.



By 2020, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Nissan and BMW all expect to sell autonomous cars.



Conclusion

Vehicular communication systems are an emerging type of networks in which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes, providing each other with information such as safety, warnings and traffic information. Autonomous cars integrated with vehicular communication systems can be more effective in avoiding crashes and traffic congestions.

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car

http://www.techradar.com/us/news/car-tech/google-wants-some-form-of-self-driving-cars-on-roads-by-2018-1130660

http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/AuE835_Projects_2011/Vallabhaneni_project.html

www.matronic.de

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/driverless-car1.htm

Info graphics

http://drivesteady.com/how-autonomous-vehicles-work


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